The Systemic View of the World -- Anatol Rapoport

World Congress of the Systems Sciences,  at Toronto, July 16-19, 2000 

These participant's notes were created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker's presentation(s) and comments from the audience. These should not be viewed as official transcripts of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. These notes have been contributed by David Ing ( at the IBM Advanced Business Institute ( ).

Anatol Rapoport, Professor Emeritus, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto.

When he was a freshmen, Rapoport's physics professor.

The last of the four founders of SGSR

von Bertalanffy:  Equifinality

Ralph Gerard:

Boulding:  9 levels of systems

Levels of systems

Integration by generalization inspired by the integral sign.

Integration of society

Two opposite processes:

Observe the same dichotomy in the meaning of globalization:

Free movement of capital driven by interests of corporation

Conclusion:  insight from Boulding

Later, Boulding replaced love by integration, to make it more acceptable in academic discourse


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