Systems Approach to Trans-Disciplinary Knowledge Exchange -- Yoshiteri Nakamori, August 3, 2002
46th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS), Shanghai, P.R. China, August 2-6, 2002.
Saturday, August 3, 2002, 4:05 p.m.
This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker's presentation(s) and comments from the audience. These should not be viewed as official
transcripts of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be
directed to the originator. These notes have been contributed by David Ing (firstname.lastname@example.org) at the IBM Advanced Business Institute ( http://www.ibm.com/abi ).
Introduction by Mike Jackson
Professor Yoshiteru Nakamori, Japan Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Kanazawa, Japan
This institute is well-funded by the Japanese government, particularly working in knowledge management, based on Professor Nonaka.
Interest in how systems thinking can influence knowledge management.
Professor Yoshiteru Nakamori
Working with institute founded in 1998.
First school in the world that brings knowledge as a target of science.
Focus on developing methodologies for trans-disciplinary knowledge exchange.
First, disabuse of a popular idea.
Knowledge management is not an activity, but how the resources are utilized.
Problem: You have to make a new structure by making new discovery, rather than storing knowledge and working on combination.
Knowledge can only be used by people with capabilities.
Presents a disappointment to information technologies.
Reconsider the definition of knowledge creation, and the roles of systems science and technology.
Unreasonable to think that knowledge is created in a situation without prior experience.
Thus, creation is a new combination of materials.
The thinking process is never a fantastic leap, it must proceed on a procedure.
Then creation and integration will have near meanings.
New knowledge will be created at a future stage of process with future knowledge.
Mainly two approaches to knowledge management: one relies on people, one on computers.
Nonaka and Takeuchi, The Knowledge Creating Company
Knowledge is created by the interaction of explicit and tacit knowledge.
Socialization is a process of sharing experiences, and creating knowledge, e.g. mental models.
Externalization: explicit models
Internalization: embodying explicit knowledge, reconnecting through learning by doing.
Management of knowledge generated individually.
Information science has been trying to create its own science.
Figure: A hierarchy of knowledge science.
Bottom: software, database.
Second level: elements of knowledge science, AI software, reasoning.
Third level: objects of knowledge science: language, cognition, expression, memory.
Top level: applications of knowledge science, translation, ...
Difficult to field information directly, unlike matter or energy.
Trying to conceptualize as a knowledge science.
Many social scientists do not accept this approach.
Definitions of information and knowledge, each with two means.
Information: knowledge, transmitted by characters, voices.
Information is sometimes knowledge, and sometimes data.
Knowledge: memorized, past knowledge or judgement
Energy to transfer:
Intelligence: ability to think and understand, instead of doing by instinct.
Knowledge science can be a discipline that develops methods
Management science is to develop abilities
Integration is difficult.
Understand our limitations of ability to objectify the world.
Usually cut off weak links, and non-linearities.
Nonaka requires direct experience in the knowledge management approach.
Thus, knowledge management by the persons concerned; and knowledge management by information technologies
Need a systems methodology which uses both, systematically.
Two approaches to intelligence in human beings:
Management science, and information science.
Need an idea of system for success.
Also two fields in systems science:
Hard and soft schools.
Challenge in knowledge science: dealing with different types of knowledge.
Public knowledge is based on scientific investigation.
Knowledge in social science can include meaning, wisdom-based by people, and experience.
Subjective, vague, circumstantial.
A system for creating systemic knowledge.
Intelligence: scientific approach
Imagination approach: information science
Environment: social science
Integration: system science
Knowledge creating system
Knowledge should be tacit
Members of project constitute a part of the system.
Subsystem intervention: What kind of knowledge is necessary?
Knowledge is a structured program.
Capture necessary data.
Subsystem of imagination:
Complex, using information technology
Subsystem of environment
Subsystem of integration
Knowledge is solution.
Evaluate the knowledge-creating system:
Are inputs and outputs defined?
How does this use computers and people as complements?
Ideas of people, in computer simulation.
Build a network, with the help of information technology.
Build a strategic, scenario-based system.
Why is this methodology a system?
It has hierarchy, functions of communications, functional control on feedback, ...
Creation of systemic knowledge is emergent.
How is trans-disciplinary knowledge exchange achieved?
Subsystems are based on natural science, math, or engineering.
... management science, cultural science
Intervention and integration subsystems are based on systems science.
In knowledge science, are developing methods.
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